A presentation of four countries

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India


We became familiar with this country when it became a British colony, and we

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knew it as the Jewel in the Crown. The whole world wanted its resources, and the period when India was a colony is called the British Raj. The capital here is New Delhi, while Mumbai is the biggest city. Their official languages are both Hindu and English, and English is the lingua franca among the local languages. India was a colony until the year 1947, and then it gained independence from the United Kingdom with Mahatma Gandhi in front. And in 1950, they formed their Republic of India, and it’s located in the southern part of Asia. It’s the second-most populous country in the world, with 1, 2 billion people and the Indian economy is the fourth largest by purchasing power parity.
The English language was introduced in India by the British rulers, and the reason Indians give such importance to English is related to the fact that India was a British colony. The British also established in I
ndia universities based on British models with emphasis on English. These Indians also got their education in British universities. The English Christian missionaries came to India from 1813 and they also built schools at primary level for Indians in which the language of instruction was local language. This language is very important for them and they have always tried to show that they know English. Even after their independence, they continued to have English the main English, and it still very important for the country.

Officially English has a status of assistant language, but in fact it is the most important language of India. After Hindi it is the most commonly spoken language in India and probably the most read and written language in India. Indians who know English will always try to show that they know English. English symbolizes in Indians minds, better education, better culture and higher intellect. Indians who know English often mingle it with Indian languages in their conversations. It is also usual among Indians to abruptly move to speak fluent English in the middle of their conversations. English also serves as the communicator among Indians who speak different language.
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Australia


The capital in Australia is Canberra. The national language is English. The country has no official language, but if you travel to Australia you will hear a lot of Australian English. Around 79 % of the population speaks English; therest of the people speak a mixture of Italian, Greek and Cantonese. The largest city in Australia is Sydney, with a population of 4,575,532. The population in Australia is 22,623,305. Australia is the world’s six largest county and is located south for Indonesia and Papua Ny Guinea. The country borders to the Pacific Ocean to the east, and the IAustralia2.jpgndian Ocean to the west. Australia is an independent country, but is a part of the British Commonwealth and the British queen is the head of the state.

James Cook, an explorer arrived in Australia in 1787. His idée was that Australia was going to be a relief for English prisoners, and around 160 000 convicts were brought to Australia from 1788 to 1868. The first few years were rough, and they didn’t have a lot of food. After some year they began farming and the quality of live expanded, this led to a huge increase in the population. The gold rush in 1851 also increased the population because many people arrived to search for gold. People from Britain brought with them their language, and a lot of different kinds where introduced. Trough a numbers of generations, these kinds of English was mixed and changed. When more and more people arrived, the Australian English started to grow and expand.


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Since the British soldiers came to Australia, the inhabitants have been affected by foreign cultures, in addition to language. English has been an important part for the Australians and during the last few centuries, this huge island has developed from a prison to an island of culture and education. Many students from all over the world go to Australia, and they take their whole or some of their education in Australian universities. Their government thinks of the young people as the future, and that’s why they use many resources in education. In fact, Australia attracts the third largest number of international students in the English-speaking world after the USA and UK.

South Africa


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The capital of South Africa is called Pretoria, but the largest city is Johannesburg. The country has 11 official languages, there among English, Afrikaans, Swazi and Xhosa. The president is called Jacob Zuma, and the population is at 49,991,300 people (2010).
English has been both a highly influential language in South Africa, and a language influenced, in turn, by adaptation in the country's different communities. Estimates based on the 1991 census suggest that some 45% of the population have a speaking knowledge of English.

English was declared the official language of the Cape Colony in 1822 (replacing Dutch), and the stated language policy of the government of the time was one of Anglicization. On the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, which united the former Boer republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free State with the Cape and Natal colonies, English was made the official language together with Dutch, which was replaced by Afrikaans in 1925. Today, English is the country's lingua franca, and the primary language of government, business, and commerce. It is a compulsory subject in all schools, and the medium of instruction in most schools and tertiary institutions.

South Africa has had a tough past with a huge ethnically diverse. Apartheid made some people less worth than others and the white has been a majority in their community. When people from all over the world were travelling to South Africa as a colony, many spoke English, and we see that the old tradition is still going on. English is also important regarding friendship and social studies. Clubs and social groups in universities etc. have English as their language, both to communicate and to gather people from other parts of the world. And they think that their social life is just as important as other things.

Canada


Canada is a land of vast distances and rich natural resources, and it’s the second largest country in the world. It stretches from north to Cape Columbia on Ellesmere Island, south to Lake Erie, and there are six time zones from Newfoundland to the Pacific seaboard. The capital is Ottawa, while the biggest city is Montreal, and there live about 31,5 million people. Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.