A list of words and expressions related to the English-speaking world


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Lingua franca

International_English.gifLingua franca is a common language, and it’s used as a medium of communication between people of different languages. Examples of lingua franca’s are numerous, and exist on every continent. Themost obvious example today is English, which is the current lingua franca of international business, science, technology and aviation. There is many other linguafranca’s centralized on particular regions, such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish.


International English
This type of English is the one you need to communicate with people with different languages around the world, and this is also referred as Global English, World English or Common English. It is used in international media, sports, technology, business and science, and it reaches towards neutrality. We can divide the International English into three circles: an inner circle, an outer circle and an expanding circle.


Standard English
Standard English is the form which is most widely accepted as being clear and properly. Thisis helpful in writing because it is a standard of communication that can be understood by all speakers and users of English. And that is called Standard Written English. This type of English has been constantly changing and it still does.

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The Commonwealth
This is an organization which consists of former colonies that support trade between the country, and it’s formerly known as the British Commonwealth. Queen Elisabeth 2nd is the head of it, and almost every the member states were a part of the British Empire.


Creole
“It is a language that is a mixture of a European language and one or more other languages and
is spoken as the first language people”. It is a stabile, natural language and the grammar has often features from the mother language. Examples of creoles are Jamaican Creole, Haitian Creole and Indian Ocean Creole.


Pidgin
“A pidgin is a language made up by two or more languages, used as a way to communicating by people whose first languages are different each other”. It is most commonly in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside. The word pidgin was originally to describe Chinese Pidgin English, but later itwas generalized to refer to any pidgin.


Descendant
A descendant is a person or an animal that descent from a specific ancestor, and there are different types of them. The first one is lineal descendant, which is a direct line of relationship back to a specific ancestor who got children, grandchildren and so on. Another example is collateral descendants, who are descendent from a brother or sister of an ancestor.


Caste system
A class system is a social structure in which classes are chosen by family and for how prosperous they are. The caste system in India is the oldest and most important, and divided society on skills and qualities. This system is divided into five levels, and each of these categories is a class where people are borned in, married in and died in.


The British Raj
The British Raj is the name of the period where the British colonial
ruled in South AsiaIndia.jpg between 1858 and 1947. British East India Company arrived in India in the early 1600s, struggling and nearly begging for the right to trade and do business. By the late 1700s the thriving firm of British merchants, backed by its own army, was essentially ruling India.


The Jewel in the Crown
This was a nickname for India, because of all the natural resources that everybody wanted. Until 1947, India was a part of the British Empire, and Queen Victoria was the head of the country. India was the most populous and valuable country and it had all the important resources such as cotton, tea, gems and much more.


Outsourcing
There isn’t a precise definition on the word outsourcing yet, but to outsource is to move parts of the organization to another nation. This often means to contract to a third company, and there are many reasons for doing it. The most important reason is to save money, but it’s also to have a new access to knowledge and talent.


Brain-drain
This is something that describes educated people who move from one country to another to obtain personal and economical needs. It can be large groups of individuals with technical skills and the reason for moving can be social environment or family influence.

Setting
The setting is where and when a story finds place, and we often get a good description about the place. The setting can be very important to understand the whole picture, about why they are where they are or why the story is at that time. It can important for us to understand why the story ended up like it did. And therefore, the setting is a major part of a story.

Francophone
This word means in general French-speaking, and it is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person. The term specifically refers to people whose cultural background is primarily associated with French language, regardless of ethnic and geographical differences.

Bilingual
To be bilingual means to use or be ableto use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency. The word can be use in many examples, such as to come from a bilingual community or that a person is bilingual in English and Japanese.

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This is what they called the children of Australian Aborigines who were taken away from their families by the Australian Federal and State government. The reason for doing this was to exterminate the Aborigines, and the Australians did that by taking all of the children and put them on reservations or to other Australian families.

Aborigines
An aborigine is a member of a race, which are indigenous to, or first occupied a specific territory. There are several kinds of aborigines, but we usual mean the Australian ones when we talk about them. Until the 17th century, the inhabitants were only aborigines, but today they make up 1 % of the population.

Apartheid
Apartheid was a political system in South Africa wa
s they divided the people into racial groups, and kept apart by law. The class distinction was between whites and blacks were the whites ruled the community, such as busses, schools, restaurants and public toilettes. It was also an economical discrimination against the nonwhites, andthe whites thought they were less worth than themselves. This system lasted until 1994, when Nelson Mandela was elected for president.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Truth and Reconciliation is a commission that is going to discover and reveal injustice in different countries. They will resolve conflicts and help in occasions like civil war, internal unrest or dictatorship. Many countries have their own Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and they can provide proof against historical revisionism of state terrorism and human rights.